Technologies


Cultivation


Cultivation processes are broken up into blocks called fields. Each field is Almost 100 hectare contains the reactor beds, algae inoculation and nutrient source, CO2 source, circulation pumps, and harvest sumps. Each field contains 300 x 3000 m² reactor beds. Carbon dioxide is taken from a Gas fired power plant as stated in the location selection and diluted to a concentration of 6% CO2with dry air. The paddle well is used to regulate flow along the open pond and to agitate the algae.

BayaFuel

Processing


Harvesting takes place after the algae has reach to high cell density concentration, every day 30% of culture It is transfer and collected at a harvest sump location and continuously pumped into high pressurized homogenizer.

From here, the algae are continuously fed through a pipeline system to Homogenizer where lipid extraction takes place In High pressurized homogenizer 90% of the lipids contained in the algae leaves in the lipid stream. The remaining 10% are trapped in the biomass. This eschews much of the mechanical and thermal dewatering required for conventional extraction. The broken cells then separate into lipid, water, and biomass layers in a gravity clarifier.

Nannochloropsis PTCC 6016 cell aggregates by ability of auto flocculation and thus sedimentation, which allows concentrating the culture 10-20 times. Algae harvesting and dewatering process may account for 20 to 30% of total production cost for algal biomass .Around 1000 kg of water must be processed to obtain 1 kg of biomass. From the clarifier, the lipid layer is siphoned off as the lipid stream. The remaining water and biomass mixture is partially separated in the clarifier as well.

The water separated by the centrifuge, as well as the water from the clarifier, are recycled for algae cultivation. Nearly all of the water from the slurry feed (99.7%) is recycled. The moist biomass residue cake enters the dryer, where water is boiled off until a dry biomass solid of 10% or less water content is left. This dry biomass can then be sold as livestock.

Bicrude processing


The lipids in algae can be converted to FAME biodiesel via a transesterfication process, or converted to diesel, jet fuel, gasoline and other transportation fuels through a catalytic hydro-treating process and other processes commonly used in petroleum refineries.

This is done through catalytic hydrotreating in which hydrogen is used to saturate the carbon chains, break apart the triglyceride molecule, and completely remove the oxygen to form n-alkanes. After a series of separations, the primary product is a mixture of straight chain alkanes with carbon numbers ranging from C13 to C20 (C13H28 to C20H2).

These n-alkanes are suitable for direct blending into a diesel pool or for further upgrading/reforming into gasoline, jet fuel, or gasoline. Byproducts such as biomass (55% of algae product) could be used in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and energy generation. These products are more valuable than livestock feed and could potentially bring in even greater value. Carbon credits from potential cap-and-trade programs could be considered as an additional source of byproduct revenue.

Fatty Acid profile of Nannochloropsis PTCC 6016

The main components of aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of Nannochloropsis PTCC 6016 were oleic acid (45.4%), palmitic acid (23.4%) and linolenic acid (12.2%). High oleic acid percentage in the fatty acid compositions makes it fully suitable for the production of good quality biofuels.

Capacity production tons/year